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Posts tagged: precolumbian

(1/2: Jama Coaque 300-500 BC, 3/4 Quitus and Manteño: 400-Incas/600–1534, 5/6: Incas 1438–1533)

Meanwhile in Ecuador….

I like the Middle Ages because for me they are so exotic. I’m Latin American and if we had a great history we had no Middle ages so I often had to do an equivalence between MA and my school history lessons.

While Europe was living his Middle Ages in Ecuador the Integration period was taking place: Small kingdoms and the first cities appeared in the Coast and Highlands, there were lot of different tribes, commerce was alive and metal was know even if pottery and textiles where more common, but soon a great Empire will come and conquer all he Highlands after defeating a fierce resistance. In of course talking about the Incas. So they get the Highlands, expand their empire, move population and then when then engage in a civil war a band acquires strange allies, with powerful weapons and metal clothing who sailed 2 year ago from Seville. And then our Histories are linked for the better and for the worse, forever and ever.  


Tiwanaku is an important Pre-Columbian archaeological site in Bolivia. Tiwanaku was the ritual and administrative capital of a major state, one of the most important precursors to the Inca Empire, flourishing for approximately five hundred years between 500 AD and 1000 AD. The ruins of the ancient city state are near the south-eastern shore of Lake Titicaca, about 72 km west of La Paz, Bolivia.

Because of their high elevation, crops grown by the Tiwanaku were limited to frost-resistant plants such as potatoes and quinoa. Llama caravans brought maize and other trade goods up from lower elevations. The Tiwanaku had large herds of domesticated alpaca and llama, and hunted wild guanaco and vicuña.

During the Late Formative period, the Tiwanaku Empire was in direct competition with the Huari empire, located in central Peru. Tiwanaku style artifacts and architecture have been discovered throughout the central Andes, a circumstance that has been attributed to imperial expansion, dispersed colonies, trading networks, a spread of ideas or a combination of all these forces.

After 700 years, the Tiwanaku civilization disintegrated as a regional political force. This happened about 1100 AD, and resulted, at least one theory goes, from the effects of climatic change, including a sharp decrease in rainfall. There is evidence that the groundwater level dropped and the raised field beds failed, leading to a collapse of agricultural systems in both the colonies and the heartland. Whether that was the sole or most important reason for the end of the culture is debated.